Dr. Kretov Kirill - summary of interpersonal Communication.
Present article is a part of Master Thesis written and effectively defended by Dr. Kretov Kirill (Master of Arts in Hr Management and Doctor of economic Administration) in May 2007, Geneva, Switzerland.
Barriers to communication The key objective with this present article is always to discuss communication: define the thought of communication, explain the communication process in its entirety and enumerate factors which may improve its efficiency.
"Communication" is scheduled by Wikipedia the following:
Communication is a process that allows organisms to switch information by a few methods .
The clarity and scope with this definition are self-evident - along with explaining the phrase, it indicates that communication is characteristic to all or any living beings. Actually, alternative definitions of the term have a tendency to incorporate the concept even further, suggesting that animals as well as bacteria communicate on a purely biological level. Therefore, an even more accurate definition is required to emphasize the value of meaningful communication when the subject of purely human interaction is to be considered:
Communication is a the whole process of meaningful interaction among human beings. Oahu is the act of passing information and the process where meanings are exchanged to be able to produce understanding.
This definition helps explain the essential proven fact that lies in the middle of communication along with narrows the scope of communication involved to human beings alone. As such, oahu is the preferred definition and can therefore supply for the remaining section of the paper.
Communication is essential. As previously discussed, it's an essential sign of all living beings, whether bacteria, reptiles or, indeed, homo-sapiens. The underlying need for communication is undeniable. It stems from a variety of both physical needs and animal instincts and it is essential to survival. However, among the fundamental differences between humans and animals is the formers’ vastly more difficult behaviour mechanisms, which necessitate better, advanced and complex methods of communication. Spiritually, misunderstanding of simply a few words often means the main difference between life and death.
From your purely sociological perspective, it really is safe to assert the formation and continued functioning of the grouping or organization is not possible without communication between its members. Furthermore, communication remains an important precondition from the effectiveness of any such entity. Society and, indeed, all of its accomplishments and advancements - whether manufacturing a car, learning to milk a cow or constructive a nuclear warhead - could have been impossible to accomplish without associated communication. Research indicates that inadequate communication is among the most often cited sources of interpersonal conflict.
Communication is important for many humans. However it may happen that a person is entirely limited in communication, the inability to express himself neither by speech, nor by sign language. This is due to losing motor activity - partial (hypokinesia) or complete (akinesia). Inside the first case, the mobility is lost as a result of various diseases from the nervous system, and post-traumatic states of the brain and spinal-cord, as well as strokes. In the second case, loosing activity can be a consequence of complex mental disorders and paralysis.
Most of us are extremely used to the ceaseless movement and communication through speech that all these diseases and problems can seem to be totally distant and insignificant. But, after losing in a terrible moment, a thing that was considered so routine and natural the sufferer will literally be slashed faraway from the world. There won't be any possibility for him to go, to ask the physician to aid, or tell his loved ones about his condition. It is really an irreparable loss for both the patient and the family.
The only salvation for the patient in this case is his eyes. During the truth of complex hemiplegia (paralysis of muscles of just one side with the body), many people retain an overall total or partial capacity to control their eyes and blink, as cranial nerves driving the eyeballs remain intact. Thus the individual has a last, lackluster in contrast to the lost abilities only possible hyperlink to contact the outdoors. With eye movements and blinks they can respond to unambiguous questions from the doctor, for instance: one blink - yes, two blinks - no. Simultaneously, the patient must resign himself that he’ll not be able to communicate voluntarily, outside simple one word answers. Or does he?
At EyeComTec (a subdivision of LAZgroup SA) -- several developers creating software to help those that suffer from paralysis or significantly impaired mobility. Their mission is to develop effective and affordable technology letting them communicate exclusively through eye movements. These have created working algorithms and prototypes from the programs; in the near future (Spring 2013), they'll be documented and published about the official web-site www.eyecomtec.com
Communication continues to be defined earlier as the transfer and comprehension of a certain meaning - but exactly how do the members of an organization transfer such meaning among themselves? Existing research distinguishes between three ways of communication - oral, written and non-verbal.
Oral communication may be the single most typical way of transferring a specific meaning, the way it may be the first form of communication that humans face. Whenever a baby is born, its cries aren't merely a way to obtain delight for that parents - it's also a persons being’s first work for balance oral communication.
Oral communication is therefore ingrained in humans from birth. It encompasses meaningful words and sounds made by humans so that they can create understanding with others through the transfer of meaning.
Like almost every other method, oral communication have their pros and cons. Firstly, it's fast - the delay between sending a verbal message and getting a verbal response is usually minimal. This permits people to switch enormous volumes of data in comparatively negligible amounts of time. Secondly, in instances where the receives is uncertain as to the precise concise explaination what it's all about, feedback and clarification can be requested live, enabling corrections from the sender to take place instantaneously.
The one biggest disadvantage of oral communication is the possibility of distortion whenever a message has to pass through multiple people. The prospect of such distortion increases in direct proportion for the amount of people it's communicated through. The “broken telephone” game played in primary school remains an equally valid instance of distorted meaning running a business communication. Consequently, oral communication becomes clearly insufficient when sensitive information has to be communicated using a number of intermediary recipients. Possible distortion is avoided in such instances with the use of Written communication.
Written communication encompasses the transmission of meaning through words and/or symbols, such as e-mails, instruction manuals, notes, faxes and everyday literature. Written communication is usually the preferred method because it is both tangible and verifiable. As an example, the photocopy of an instruction manual or perhaps the digital copy of the electronic message may be stored for later reference. In comparison, while such storage is possible with oral communication by using a tape recorder, it is relatively time-consuming, complicated, susceptible to technical errors and hard to consult (think about a situation where you should reference a small percentage of data from the 2-hour presentation).
The next major advantage of written communication stems from its very nature. Facing the requirement to put their thoughts upon paper, human beings are often far more careful with all the way they present the knowledge. Unlike oral communication, written transfers of meaning not one of them the development of the first message to be nearly instantaneous, and also this enables the sender to softly construct what it's all about, eliminating ambiguities and possible causes of misunderstanding or offense. As a result, written communication can be far more logical, clear and thought-out than its oral counterpart.
The major problem with written communication is time. Unlike oral communication, the written technique is a lot more time-consuming. Additionally, it frequently involves completing a variety of prerequisite activities before an itemized message may be dispatched, for example spell checking or clear handwriting. While currently available software helps automate a few of these tasks and makes others downright redundant, written communication still remains an indisputably more time-consuming form of interaction.
The last major disadvantage of written communication is feedback - or lack of it. Unlike oral communication where feedback is generally instantaneous, no such rapid feedback mechanism are available for the written form. Consequently, the certainty how the message will be received is reduced, as is the reality that it'll be interpreted as intended. Even though the use of contacting the receiver for more clarification and/or verification exists, it isn't always available and it is relatively time-consuming. Due to these reasons, written communication ought to be treated being a complementary type of communication in a given entity rather than the exclusive one.
The final communication approach to be discussed on this section is nonverbal communication. Nonverbal communication may take place while we are sending a verbal message to someone ; however, in some cases, in addition, it occurs even though no verbal message is being sent. In fact, some researchers even reason that everything people do - from smiles and intonations to body movements and hairstyle - can be classified as nonverbal communication, albeit one using a meaning that is hard to extract and accurately interpret. High emotional intelligence is frequently an advantage - people possessing it can frequently extract more info in the sender by taking a look at how a verbal message is considered as opposed to focusing merely about what has been said. For example, while a verbal message may say “Yes”, its nonverbal counterpart (for instance, the eyes with the sender) might actually convey the opposite meaning. Understanding such subtleties is essential not only for ethical reasons, but also since it helps increase the quality and effectiveness of transferring a message.
In accordance with J. Fast , everyone movement includes a meaning; no movement is accidental. People often unintentionally send messages, often to their own detriment - consider cases where a speaker addressing a sizable audience may send signals of uncertainty via a shaky voice or intonation.
Body language is a very interesting field of study, nevertheless its root lie primarily in psychology. For HR managers, however, there's two essential messages that a body can convey. The first is the extent this agreement someone has an interest in and appreciates the scene of others. The second is the perceived status of men and women associated with this kind of interaction (5). For example, humans have a tendency to position themselves closer to people they like.
While body gestures adds a deeper intending to a sender’s message, it may also complicate verbal communication. This is due to the primary problem that there are no universally accepted standard of interpreting nonverbal communication. Furthermore, such interpretation is often impacted by the personality, cultural past and experience with the receiver, to mention only some such variables. The one most important drawback to nonverbal communication is that messages sent in this manner tend to be challenging to control by the sender and difficult to interpret from the receiver.
The Communication Process
In defining the idea of communication, it had been mentioned that it is process of transferring meaning. It will analyze this process in depth by breaking it down into numerous steps that make transfer and knowledge of this is. Various kinds of this method exist, due to multiple researchers identifying different - and sometimes conflicting - teams of steps involved. Some of these models are purely technical, including Bell’s original sketches with the telephone and bear little practical use for an HR practitioner, while some are severely out of date, often by up to 60 years. This will give attention to discussing selected models which can be considered of relevance to this topic. They will be presented in chronological order reflecting the development of communications being a field of study since 1960s.
Shannon’s model of communication (depicted below) was one of the primary general types of the communication process . For more than 60 years, it has remained the first such model learned by students within their initial academic foray to the field of communications.
Shannon’s model divides the process of communication into eight distinct components:
1. Information Source: the person who produces the message and so initiates the communication session.
2. Message: sent by the Information Source and received by the Destination
3. Transmitter: this term encompasses a wide variety of intermediary transmitters, both organic and non-organic. For example, Shannon’s original definition envisaged the transmitter being a telephone that captured audio waves and converted them into electronic signals. However, a sign can also be created and modulated by just communicating what it's all about verbally and throughout associated nonverbal communication.
4. Signal: flows through a channel.
5. Channel or carrier: may be anything, including electricity, radio waves, paper, etc.
6. Noise: as Shannon originally conceived of transmitters as telephones, the idea of noise was therefore comparatively restrictive and referred purely to secondary signals that confuse or obscure the signal carried through the channel. Contemporary research into the communication process generally regards noise as a metaphor for the variety of communication barriers that can distort the clarity with the message.
7. Receiver: a multitude of receivers is achievable - as an example, in face to face communication it could the set of ears (sound) and eyes (gesture).
8. Destination: the one who consumes and procedures the message.
Several books on communication have since modified Shannon’s model, replacing transmitters and receivers with encoding and decoding respectively; the fundamental principle, however, has stayed unaltered. The model can also be often called encounter model of communication). Its single biggest drawback to this model is it does not account for the truth that communication is normally bidirectional. Nevertheless there is no be certain that the initial message was received (or was interpreted within the intended manner), there is certainly often a strong requirement for feedback. This element should never be underestimated - it fulfils an important objective of the communication process by verifying that understanding has been achieved. Actually, it may be safely stated that effective communication is impossible without feedback, because the utilisation of the latter logically encompasses not just the change in meaning, but in addition its understanding.
The Interactive Model depicted below expands upon Shannon’s model by incorporating a cybernetic idea of feedback. It is based on the notion that destinations provide feedback on messages received, which often enables the knowledge source to evolve their messages instantly.
As the discussion on the need for feedback demonstrates, its incorporation in to the model is a very important elaboration. Unfortunately, additionally it is a radically oversimplified one. Just like the original message, feedback, too, needs to be encoded, transmitted, decoded and received. It is also affected by noise - but none of them of such elements are indicated about the interactive model. Quite simply, even though the model makes up about the reasons with the original message, it does not perform the same for feedback and drastically oversimplifies it as an outcome.
The Transactional Model (depicted below) correctly treats feedback as the second message. Moreover, this doesn't separate the message sender and the receiver, instead perceiving both as communicators involved with a circular flow of developing and consuming messages.
Davis Foulger argues how the Transactional Model is, in many ways, a great model of face-to-face communication. It extends readily for an interactive medium that gives users with symmetrical interfaces for creation and usage of messages (notes, electronic mails, letters, etc.) However, the disadvantage to this model is its failure to are the cause of the noise factor. Because of this, a combination of Transactional and Interactive models is best utilized to view the communication process; within the Transaction model above, the path from Communicator A to Communicator B (and, equally, from Communicator B back to Communicator A) is also the road in the sender towards the received as depicted in the Interactive Model.
By now, it should be evident there multiple types of the communication process, understanding that not one of them fully take into account all steps involved in the process. Therefore, the concluding part of this section will discuss the communication process with regards to the actual way it actually occurs in reality instead of what it is presented by models.
Communication is usually a purposeful process, whether it is merely a greeting or even a complicated speech to an audience of corporate investors. Quite simply, communication requires there to become a and therefore needs to be transferred and, in one way or another, expressed inside a message. The sender produces a message by encoding a thought - for instance, a Swiss entrepreneur encountering his American counterpart may decide to encode their greeting into English. Similarly, the Swiss entrepreneur may encode the message in the language unknown towards the receiver; however, communication in such cases will most likely not take place because it is unlikely to produce the understanding of the intended meaning from the receiver.
When the message is formed and also the receiver is identified, the sender must pick the channel - the medium whereby the content will visit its intended recipient. As an example, the Swiss entrepreneur above may want to write correspondence, create a telephone call or consult with his American counterpart face-to-face. All of these are types of different channels of communication, and it's also the responsibility of the sender to select the most appropriate one. For instance, the Swiss entrepreneur may choose to hold a two-hour long video conference from his mobile phone - while expensive, it is clearly cheaper than discussing the problem in person in the event the American counterpart is thousands of miles away.
When the channel may be chosen and also the message may be sent, the receiver needs to decode it - put simply, the symbols where the message is encoded need to be translated in to a format understood through the receiver. Usually, there isn't any guarantee that madness as understood through the receiver will probably be comparable to madness originally invested to the message through the sender. The key reason because of this discrepancy is the aforementioned problem of noise - barriers to communication that distort the clarity of the message.
To date, the communication process has followed Shannon’s action style of communication for the reason that it focused exclusively on uni-directional communication in the sender to the receiver. However, as discussed previously, communication is usually bidirectional - the receiver might wish to respond, giving communication a brand new purpose, restarting the procedure at its inception point and effectively creating a communication loop as depicted within the Transactional Model.
Barriers to Communication
The final thing about this section discusses possible barriers to effective communication. Previously listed types of the communication process generally incorporate the element of noise (using the obvious exception of the Transactional Model). Noise may be understood to be barriers that will distort the clarity from the message and alter its meaning - plus times when the noise levels are particularly high, what it's all about may not be delivered at all.
Filtering takes place when the sender intentionally manipulates this content from the message and its particular presentation to make sure that it is viewed more favourably through the receiver. For example, telling people what they need to listen to or emphasizing all attention on good news and barely mentioning the not so good mention unhealthy are frequent cases of filtering.
Selective perception happens when the receiver selectively sees and hears. It could be based on the receiver’s needs, motivations, experience, background, culture and other personal characteristics.
”We usually do not see reality; we interpret what we see and think of it as reality”
Very real problem
Human beings have a limited ease of processing data. When information to be processed exceeds the processing capacity, information overload occurs. This means that an individual may ignore, pass over, select out, or forget information. Mass confusion brings about loss in information minimizing efficiency of communication. Over a side-note, very real problem does apply not just in mental faculties, but additionally to most modern communication channels, for example e-mail or mobile network that occasionally become overloaded and for that reason stops being completely functional (as an example, delayed delivery of e-mails due to network overload).
Contemporary managers are in a much and the higher chances of struggling with very real problem as a result of proliferation of communication channels available (the proliferation of e-mails and associated spam, telephone calls and their quality, SMS, faxes, meetings and the have to remain up-to-date on professional developments in one’s own field).
The interpretation with the message by the receiver could be greatly influenced by the way the receiver feels at the time of receipt. The identical message can be perceived differently based on whether the receiver is angry, tired or happy. As an example, sound judgment would lead someone to avoid asking their direct superior at work for a salary increase when the latter is proven to be in a bad move; similarly, an exhausted and stressed-out recipient is unlikely to effective process information. Extreme emotions, including depression, may even switch the rational capabilities of a human mind with purely emotional judgements, enhancing the likelihood of misinterpreting the content.
Language is really a highly prominent barrier to effective communication. As discussed previously, a Swiss entrepreneur and his awesome American counterpart would be unable to effectively resolve an issue if they couldn't speak the same language. Communication would just be impossible - and although gestures can convey numerous meanings, it is clearly insufficient for business purposes. Cultural differences can have a similar impact - jokes or gestures could be perceived differently based on the culture of the recipient. Finally, even words may have entirely different meanings to different people, resulting in entire messages being misinterpreted due to a person’s age, culture, experience, education, professional background, etc.
One of the most popular barriers to effective communication is communication apprehension or anxiety. This is a serious problem since it could affect the majority of communication. Studies show that anywhere between 5% and 20% of people is impacted by communication apprehension . These people often choose communication channels based this is not on their effectiveness for any given message, but rather on their determination in order to avoid a specific channel altogether. For instance, people apprehensive of oral communication will usually attempt to avoid channels which involve verbal communication, rendering them not able to give effective presentations or communicate effectively by phone.
There are more barriers to successful communication; however, the ones enumerated above as usually most prominent. A particular degree of noise is usually present. Hypothetically, even though humans were to 1 day master the strategies of telepathy, the original visual message thus obtained would still possibly mean different things to several people. Successful communication is important - however it is demanding with regards to skills and attention, rather than even telepathy is a silver bullet for the problem of noise.
2. K.W. Thomas and W.H. Schmidt, “A Survey of Managerial Interests with regards to Conflict,” Academy of Management Journal, June 1976, p.317.
3. L.S. Rashotte, “What Does That Smile Mean? Madness of Nonverbal Behaviors in Social Interaction,” Social Psychology Quarterly, March 2002, pp.92-102.
4. J. Fast, Body gestures (Philadelphia: M. Evan, 1970), p.7.
5. A. Mehrabian, Nonverbal Communication (Chicago: Aldine-Atherton, 1972).
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7. Foulder, D. An Ecological Type of the Communication Process. February 25, 2004. Retrieved from http://foulger.info/davis/research/unifiedModelOfCommunication.htm
8. Shannon, C.E.A (1948). Mathematical Theory of communication. Bell System Technical Journal, vol. 27, pp.379-423 and 623-656, July and October, 1948.
9. Stephen P. Robbins, Timothy A. Judge. Organizational Behavior (Pearson, Prentice Hall, 12th edition 2007), p.369.
10. Weiner, N. (1948). Cybernetics: or Control and Communication inside the animal and also the Machine. Wiley.
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12. J.C McCroskey, J.A. Daly, and G. Sorenson, “Personality Correlates of Communication Apprehension, “Human Communication Research, Spring 1976, pp.376-81.
13. Personal page from the author - Dr. Kirill Kretov: http://www.kretov.ch
14. EyeComTec is really a subdivision of LAZgroup SA - a group of developers creating software to help individuals who are suffering from paralysis or significantly impaired mobility. The main mission of EyeComTec would be to develop effective and affordable technology allowing them to communicate exclusively through eye movements
About the author and EyeComTec:
Present article is a part of Master Thesis written and successfully defended by Dr. Kirill Kretov (Doctor of Business Administration, Master of Arts in Human Resource Management, and Bachelor pc Science) in May 2007, Geneva, Switzerland.
Kretov Kirill is a founder of EyeComTec (subdivision of LAZgroup SA), several developers creating software to help people that suffer from paralysis or significantly impaired mobility. The mission of EyeComTec is always to develop effective and affordable technology allowing visitors to communicate exclusively through eye movements.
Having analyzed the specialized market laptop or computer devices for paralyzed people, they found an upsetting conclusion: a lot of the devices and software are too expensive for the physically impaired people in addition to their families to get. Needless to say, the big companies spend great levels of money every year on improving the quality of their production but, regardless, the costs are extremely inflated.
These factors were considered as a huge challenge with a team of developers from LAZgroup. They strongly believe that devices for paralyzed people really should not be so expensive, and EyeComTec is likely to create working types of the device optimized for netbook computers having a built-in video camera (whose price will not exceed $500). The application to be released in 2013 will be for free form of hosting non-commercial use. LAZgroup is focusing on a suitable and affordable product for those who absolutely need it. Besides, if this type of creates competition in neuro-scientific computer technologies, if other companies who create similar products will probably be motivated to produce a more effective and less costly solutions, LAZgroup will take into consideration that an unambiguous success. What is important isn't to forget that quality is not always measured by price. Come back for updates on www.eyecomtec.com!